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The issue of payment must be decided before the visits occur medicine xyzal discount 8mg ondansetron free shipping, so that the financial issues are resolved before visits begin. Many programs have provided visits and not received the promised payment from the parties. In dependency cases, the costs of the visit are generally absorbed by the child welfare agency managing the case. Programs should be aware that the cost of the visit is the same when the parent cancels or shows up for the service: staff still must be paid, paperwork completed, and the program site must be made available for the visit. Therefore, programs are penalized if the child welfare agency refuses to pay for cancelled visits. This represents a significant cost to programs who must prepare for visits regardless of whether those visits are ultimately cancelled or fulfilled. Every program is required to have a grievance procedure pursuant to the 1999 Supreme Court Standards. When programs are transparent as to their policies and procedures, especially regarding payment and record keeping, they report fewer grievances. If I meet a local judge in a public place, it is appropriate for me to talk to him or her about my program? General conversation about your program ­ the mission, the hours of operation, the location, staff changes ­ are all public record, and they can be discussed informally with judges. However, no one from your staff should engage judges in case-specific informal conversation. Therefore, it is essential that you train your staff to prevent them from engaging in improper behavior. Can a program director be qualified as an expert on supervised visitation during a trial/hearing? Some programs report that they are subpoenaed to testify at least a few times a month. Other programs report that they are rarely called upon to testify about the visits that took place, with parties instead agreeing to rely on the notes that are kept and filed in each case. Program directors have a great deal of discretion to reject cases, especially when they do not have the security, the staff expertise, or the resources to safely provide a visit. This rule was created in the 1999 Standards, and it has generally worked well to protect programs from being forced to take cases. There have been cases in which the program has negotiated for more resources in order to accept complex cases that they ordinarily might not be able to accept. For example, programs have negotiated with the court to have additional security on site to be able to accept certain cases. They have also limited the days on which the parties could set visits (because of the availability of certain trained staff or the ability of the program to provide one-onone visits, instead of group visits). Thus, the Clearinghouse encourages programs to keep local judges and trial court administrators apprised of hours of operation, kinds of cases accepted, kinds of visits held. This should be done in writing on a bi-annual basis, unless changes in the program administration or the bench occurs. New judges that rotate onto the benches that typically order visits (dependency judges, family court judges, etc. His youngest daughter Jane (11) told her mother, Susan, that George had touched her inappropriately. What documents will the court assess in order to make an appropriate referral for the Miller family? What needs to be kept in mind when referring the Miller family to a supervised visitation program? They have been referred to supervised visitation services after the mother, Laura, obtained an Injunction for Protection Against Domestic Violence against the father, Robert. However, Laura shows up a few minutes early and Robert sees her in the parking lot through an open window. What type of court are cases of child abuse, neglect, or abandonment typically heard in? While these topics can range from theories of practice to new statistics on child abuse, the next step in practice is to bridge the gap between research and suggest how it can be used to improve client services. It can be difficult for monitors to understand how to link relevant scholarly information and theoretical frameworks to everyday practice.

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The family members of the identified patient were generally left out of the treatment and not viewed as potentially active agents of dysfunction and potential recovery treatment zinc toxicity cheap ondansetron 8mg on-line. During the 1950s, 1960s, and especially during the 1970s, the family systems approach to treatment became popular among clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals (Haley, 1976; Minuchin, 1974). The systems approach took exception to the notion that only the identified patient was in need of intervention services. In fact, the systems approach asserted that the dysfunction resided in the family as an interrelated system and not only in one family member. For example, therapists observed that patient functioning often deteriorated when he or she interacted with family members. Therefore, all family members were treated together-a radical departure from traditional treatment modalities. The family systems approach emerged from the Bateson Project during the 1950s in California. Gregory Bateson, an anthropologist, was especially interested in communication styles, collaborating with Jay Haley (an expert in communications), John Weakland (an engineer), and Don Jackson (a psychiatrist) to examine communication styles such as double-bind communication and metamessages in psychiatric patients (especially schizophrenic patients) at the Palo Alto Veterans Hospital (Bateson, Jackson, Haley, & Weakland, 1956). Some family theorists (such as John Bell, Ivan Nagy, James Framo, Lyman Wynne, and Murray Bowen) used psychoanalytic theory in their application of family therapy (J. Others, such as Carl Whitaker and Virginia Satir, focused on experiential models with an emphasis on intuition and feelings (Satir, 1967, 1972; Whitaker & Keith, 1981). Still others, such as Nathan Ackerman and Salvador Minuchin, developed structural family therapy and focused on family boundaries and generational hierarchies, especially among child-focused families. While a wide variety of family therapy approaches and strategies emerged following the Bateson Project throughout the later part of the twentieth century (especially during the 1960s and 1970s), commonalities primarily included a focus on the role of the entire family system in producing and maintaining problematic behavior, communication patterns associated with family problems, and ongoing maladaptive relationship patterns among family members. Intervention at the family level rather than at the individual level became the goal of each of these treatment strategies. Typical of many discoveries, it was by accident that these psychotropic medications were found to be effective in the treatment of mental illness. Australian psychiatrist, John Cade, noticed that guinea pigs became calm when they were given lithium chloride, a natural salt. Cade then gave lithium to psychotic patients and found that it had the same calming effect as discovered in the guinea pigs. French physician, Henri Laborit, used the medication in an attempt to lower blood pressure prior to surgery and found that it lowered patient anxiety. In 1952, two French psychiatrists (Pierre Deniker and Jean Delay) gave the medication (chlorpromazine or Thorazine) to psychiatric patients. They found that patients were less anxious and that schizophrenic patients experienced fewer hallucinations and delusions. Thus, the discovery of rauwolfia serpentona (or reserpine) and the neuroleptics (such as Thorazine and Haldol) proved helpful in reducing the hallucinations, delusions, and agitation of psychotic patients. Furthermore, benzodiazepines (such as Valium) were found in the early 1960s to be effective in reducing profound symptoms of anxiety. The initial response to the discovery of these medications was marked by tremendous enthusiasm in the professional and lay communities. Later, however, problematic side effects and treatment limitations tempered the initial enthusiasm. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of these treatments ultimately enabled patients to leave mental hospitals in droves. For example, in 1950 there were approximately 500,000 patients hospitalized in state and county mental hospitals in the United States. These medications also created a new role for psychiatrists who were generally providing only psychoanalytic, limited biological. The effectiveness of medication further solidified the notion that many mental illnesses were brain diseases and thus did not emerge from unconscious conflicts alone. The increasing use of medication to treat psychiatric problems also promulgated 66 Foundations and Fundamentals to prevent mental illness from developing. The community mental health clinics that opened throughout the United States were typically funded by state and federal grant monies. The movement resulted in opportunities for psychologists to provide a wide range of professional services including psychological testing, consultation, treatment, crisis intervention, and services focused on the prevention of mental illness.

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On the other hand symptoms heart attack order ondansetron 4mg on-line, maternal depression is rarely seen in "societies that are close," in which there is a large family, community, or state support system. These reporters echoed the arguments of the few authors brave enough to address the contentious issue of motherhood in the 1990s. In the years immediately following the Susan Smith case, a spate of books targeting the oppressive ideology of motherhood were published, constituting the largest wave of feminist writing on motherhood this culture has ever experienced. Diane Eyer, for example, targeted some of the more egregious examples of "mother-blaming" in the late twentieth-century in her Motherguilt, arguing that the scapegoating of mothers is a convenient cover for systemic governmental problems. Her sordid story was more comfortably couched as the isolated crime of an evil individual that "exposed our powerlessness and ignorance and our vulnerability to human perversion. It was as if her confession refocused public discourse onto the actual process of mothering rather than all of the secondary racial, class, and marital characteristics of the Good Mother. It was not a cultural type that existed in 1990s America; Susan Smith was deemed not just horrible, or evil, but "inconceivable," "incomprehensible," "unspeakable," and "unfathomable. The class-based, sexualized public representations of Smith just prior to her confession paved the way for new understandings. Moreover, she had manipulated them with historical images of race that made her story seem more believable; by playing the white woman in danger of the black male criminal, she had ensured that many Americans would reflexively believe her story. News and World Report, November 14, 1994; "Children: Nothing is More Important;" Erwin, "Drowning of Sons Wounds Myth of Motherhood"; Bella English, "Mothers Wonder: How? But, in the immediate post-confession coverage, those who recognized that Smith might be in any way "like us" were a distinct minority. The predominant reaction was to ostracize Smith completely; she was summarily cast out as a deviant along the lines of womanhood, motherhood, race, and sexuality. The Smith case, according to one journalist, was "one of those universal moments that hit everyone in the gut," and her confession to infanticide resulted in "the loss of our innocence. The sense of personal betrayal in public responses made it clear that Smith had committed two crimes: the murders and the carjacking lie. The immediate rage following her admission of infanticide was based on several factors: the brutality of the murders; the lie that drew strangers into the investigation and kept them glued to their television sets; the assault on contemporary myths of ideal motherhood. Smith called upon the most familiar face of criminality when she said she had been carjacked by a black man. Some Americans, primarily African Americans, argued that Smith had deliberately called upon centuries-old stereotypes of black male criminality and white female innocence. And it was not just Susan who was to blame in this scenario; the American public, because of their willingness to believe her for over a week, was implicated in her lie as well. The trajectory of images in the Susan Smith case inverted the imagery process of the O. Wendy Kozol argues that the Simpson case initially made the news as a public conversation about domestic violence, feminine vulnerability, and gendered power relations. This narrative was quickly subsumed by images of race and masculinity, specifically in the form of racist white policemen and a victimized black man. Much of the immediate post-confession media coverage of the Smith case targeted the racism inherent in the carjacking lie, but journalists, in a matter of mere days in most cases, quickly discarded this narrative for one based on gender articulated through images of class and sexuality. The initial round of editorials condemned the use of the age-old racist stereotypes, and Smith, in these reports, was something of a representative for the state of American race relations. These reports sought to initiate a national conversation about race, but this attempt was short-lived. Other articles sought to deny the importance of race, and they did so in two ways: by ostracizing Smith as a lone racist, a relic of the past, or by denying that race had anything to do with her choice of a "believable" criminal. The majority of journalists preferred the let the racial angle die a quick death, supplying sound bites from prominent African Americans who alleviated racial guilt. Race-based politics of the oldschool, Dixiecrat, George Wallace style abruptly fell out of favor, especially at the national level, after the cataclysms of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Anyone familiar with American politics at the end of the twentieth century knows that this transformation did not entail widespread liberalism on racial policies in the South or even in the nation. Rather, a complicated racial code developed, and as in the "rape myth" of lynching, the code hinged on the intertwining of race and gender. Feldman notes that the "solid" Democratic South of the Jim Crow era transformed into a "solid" Republican South that is "forcibly reformed on issues of race. Conservative rhetoric at the end of the twentieth century rested firmly on a platform of "family values," which itself was code for the traditional, white, patriarchal family structure.

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All patients received 16 treatments treatment e coli generic 8mg ondansetron with mastercard, each lasting 45 minutes, with 2 treatments a week over a course of 8 weeks. The treatment dose in terms of duration and number of treatments both in the clinic and at home was equal in the two groups. Both groups were assigned a maximum of six individually designed home exercises to be performed daily during the treatment period. Brief information on relevant anatomic and ergonomic topics was handed out to all patients. Other forms of treatment, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, or alternative medicine, were not allowed during the intervention period, but there were no restrictions in the follow-up period. The patients were observed and guided closely by the therapist during each session. Outcome measures were spinal range of motion, pain, functional disability, general health, and return to work as follows: A. Pain at the moment, worst pain the last 14 days, and mean pain during the last 14 days were scored. The final outcome measure used in the statistical analyses was the mean of these three recordings. Functional disability was recorded using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. Return to work was self-reported by the patients based on the status at each test session. Patients partly or fully sicklisted were contained in the "sick leave" group, whereas all those in the "returned to work" group had resumed fulltime employment. All outcome measures except for spinal range of motion were scored on questionnaires administered by the patients and carried out five times during the study: before and immediately after the treatment period. A collaborating physician who was blinded to which group the patients were assigned recorded spinal range of motion. All pretests were performed after randomization, except for spinal range of motion, which was performed before randomization. Mean values with 95% confidence intervals are given for normally distributed data. Only spinal manipulation, specific mobilization, and stretching techniques described by Evjenth, Hamberg, and Kaltenborn were allowed. The purpose was mainly to mobilize hypomobile areas or to stretch paravertebral muscle tissue depending on the clinical findings. The exercises were performed by doing 2 or 3 sets of 20 to 30 repetitions for each exercise, with 30 seconds to 1-minute rest between each set. Strengthening, stretching, mobilizing, coordination, and stabilizing exercises for the abdominal, back, pelvic, and lower limb muscles, suited to the clinical findings, were allowed. The therapist was free to choose type, number of repetitions, sets, and progression of exercises. The training took place with or without training equipment in the physiotherapy clinic. Group training, massage, and methods were not allowed during the treatment pe- Statistical Analyses. Patients who dropped out for reasons other than the treatment to which they were randomized (dropout type A) were given the baseline registration score for missing data points during the follow-up period. Patients dropping out because of the treatment to which they were assigned (dropout type B) were given the worst score registered for any patient in their treatment group. They were all registered and statistically analyzed after the intention-to-treat principle. Statistical test results of within (time) and between group differences are given. Variables showing significant differences were retained for further post hoc analyses, and the student t test was used on the three above-mentioned outcome measures to test differences in improvement between the two treatment groups at all the posttreatment test sessions. Paired t test was used to investigate changes within groups, and the results from the posttreatment and follow-up test sessions were compared to the pretreatment result. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (within groups) and Mann-Whitney U test (between groups) were used for the Schober test.

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Rather this is a compilation medicine 123 generic ondansetron 8mg with mastercard, a re-organizing and a particular presentation of the science to date. My influences are too numerous to list and this book has been greatly improved and enhanced by countless discussions with colleagues both online, at conferences and the participants in my course. I am indebted to a vast number of people and grateful for their help through the years. Reproduction Ethos If you would like to translate this book to other languages you are free to do so. If you are a healthcare provider and wish to give a presentation on components of this book you are also free to do so with appropriate recognition of the source. It would be less cool to take some of the content and design and pass it off as your own though. Teaching therapists and treating patients in the fields of Kinesiology, Physiotherapy and Chiropractic for more than 20 years. Greg has a practice in Toronto, Canada helping a range of patients as diverse as elite runners striving to make the Olympics to people with persistent pain struggling to play with their kids again. Greg teaches two continuing education courses for professionals entitled "Reconciling Biomechanics with Pain Science" and "Running Resiliency: a comprehensive approach to running injury management and performance". Gives some insights into nociception, the processing of nociception and the production of pain. Insights into the modulation of pain both habituation (turning down) and sensitization (amplification) is discussed. A basic and brief section for patients who might want to learn some more details about pain mechanisms. They help people reconceptualize pain, change their own beliefs about pain and facilitate healthy behaviours to help with pain. Not every Key Message is relevant to every patient so health care providers might want to pick which one their patient needs. This section could be printed in its entirety or an individual page could be printed on each patient visit and viewed as a standalone infographic. This section overlaps with the Key Messages but starts to give the reader more information about potential contributors to pain. We have information on posture, strength, movement habits, sitting, mechanical deformities, depression, fear, exercise. Again, you can print only parts of this section or have your patient read the whole thing. If reading the whole thing, it will help set them up for the Recovery Strategy section. Where your patients in pain start to assess what factors/contributors might be relevant to them. But in the first half of this section (Self Audit) your patients or you go through potential pain contributors and make an assessment of what is relevant. One of the most useful parts is the goal setting for meaningful and missing activities. The role of physical loading: too much too soon Degeneration, arthritis and muscle tears: your wrinkles on the inside Strength and flexibility: when are they important? Self Audit: Lifestyle, social and health factors Self Audit: Coping - avoidance or persistence? The point of understanding pain Pain defined Pain is an alarm the process of pain Nociception: our surveillance system the spinal cord: our switchboard the brain: the family meeting Pain is meant to motivate an action Learning pain: painful memories form Sensitization: more pain more gain Habituation: turning pain down Cortical Reorganization But one theme that resonates for many is that you can control your pain, manage your own injury and even get out of pain with your own skills and with some guided help from a therapist. Education and knowledge are the first step in problem solving your own pain predicament. Some of those things might be counterintuitive and not make sense unless you fully understand what pain is. For example, many people might think that pain means you need to stop doing everything in your life and if you keep persisting you could harm yourself. There are rare cases where this is true but often rest and avoidance is the opposite of what is needed. When you have pain or injury it might actually be best to get moving again, start exercising or resume your hobbies.

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But other factors related to silent treatment buy 4 mg ondansetron overnight delivery your general health might influence your pain levels. You migth be exceedlingly driven at work or in your hobbies to the exclusion of other healthy behaviours. All of these factors might influence the sensitivity of your nervous system and your pain. General Health Secondary health complaints might influence your level of sensitivity and your pain. For example, metabolic disorders can predispose people to tendon related pain or even Frozen Shoulder. You might constantly brace your core or tilt your neck in a certain way and you never let your nervous system settle down. You might be unable to do this because of a lack of strength, balance or flexibility. Avoiding activity, social withdrawal, time off work and loss of contact with family and friends can sensitize you. Persisters keep doing the things that aggravate them and they never get a chance to settle down. If you believe that movement and load is bad for the body and will cause injury then you will be likely to withdraw and avoid activities even though those activities are good for you. Self Audit: Emotional and psychological factors Self Audit: Beliefs about pain Self Audit: Summarize your contributors Recovery Strategies 1. For example, big tough football players are more likely to get injured when they have a lot of physical/ mechanical stress. But they are also more likely to get injured when they have a lot of academic stress. Dancers are more likely to get injured when they have poor sleep or higher levels of anger/hostility. You can have a lot of physical, mechanical, emotional and social stressors and have no pain. But at some point a sudden increase in one of those stressors or a new stressor puts you just over the edge and the water flows out and now you have pain. Often people will have more pain when there a changes in the stressors in their life. It is the inability to adapt to the new stressor that contributes to pain not necessarily the amount of the stressor in your life. Its not stress - its unmanageable stress We need to keep that cup from overflowing. This means over time you can build resiliency or coping that allows you to adapt and tolerate all the stressors in your life. But people can slowy build their tolerance to the stresses of running and do it soon. You can decrease some of the stressors in your life but also build resiliency to those stressors. Further, sometimes just understanding that these factors are important can help your situation. Consider if you tend to do the same movements repeatedly and if these movements or postures might be sensitizing you. Physical Impairments For most people in pain strength and flexibility are often not very relevant. Beliefs Many false beliefs about pain can continue to sensitize your nervous system. Consider: -sleep -stress -work-life balance -obesity -general health conditions Sensitivity can be influenced by a number of factors. Avoiders stop doing the things that are important to them or certain movements and this avoidance leads to increased sensitivity. Emotional/Psychological Factors Fear, catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, rumination and anger can all contribute to your senstivity.

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Thus medicine xarelto purchase 4 mg ondansetron otc, medical, cognitive, family, sociocultural, and emotional factors all deserve further attention in order to best assist Thomas in meeting the challenges ahead. Social skills training (in a group context) is indicated to assist Thomas in acquiring improved tools for contending with peers and more effectively meeting his social needs and decreasing his aggressive behavior. The use of cognitive-behavioral techniques in a highly structured group format is indicated. A report directed to another mental health professional may be very different from one to a school teacher or a parent. Psychologists also must handle reports confidentially and send them only to appropriate persons. Integrated Psychological Assessment Report Having described various components of psychological assessment, the case study for Thomas will be used to demonstrate the actual integration of a complete psychological assess- ment battery. Note the diversity of measures, theoretical perspectives and biopsychsocial elements synthesized in the course of this evaluation. This complex, integrative, and contemporary example of a psychological assessment case serves to illustrate several critical issues. First, a combination of psychological tests was utilized to fully assess this child through observational, interviewing, intellectual, objective personality, and projective personality measures. Second, an integrated theoretical approach was utilized, taking into consideration intrapsychic psychodynamic issues. These include general neuropsychological functioning involving brain-behavior relationships, general intellectual functioning (such as reasoning and problem-solving), as well as more specific cognitive skills such as visual and auditory memory, language skills, pattern recognition, finger dexterity, visual-perceptual skills, academic skills, and motor functioning. Theories proposed by Spearman, Thurstone, Cattell, Guilford, Piaget, Sternberg, Gardner, and others have been considered. The Stanford-Binet, Kaufman Scales, and other intelligence tests are also frequently used. In addition to overall intellectual skills and cognitive strengths and weaknesses, these tests are frequently used to assess the presence of learning disabilities, predict academic success in school, examine brain dysfunction, and assess personality. Some have argued that many tests are biased and misused with minority group members. Others assume that cognitive skills such as intelligence is stable throughout the life span and are innately determined. Many tests exist to measure personality and psychological functioning such as reinforcement program and social skills training), humanistic concerns. Finally, what on the surface may have appeared to be simply a boy having problems with aggression in the classroom was revealed through psychological assessment to be far more complex and elusive. The Big Picture Psychological testing is truly a unique and invaluable skill offered by clinical psychologists. In addition to the interviewing and observational tools described in Chapter 7, the major areas of cognitive, neuropsychological, and personality assessment provide tremendous insights into the human mind and psyche. Formal psychological assessment, when carefully integrated with selected measures and biopsychosocial contexts, richly informs both diagnosis and treatment. Future clinical psychologists will improve these measures in order to make them more useful to diverse clinical populations. Information obtained from research and practice will be used to develop improved measures that increase reliability, validity, and utility. Future instruments will also likely attempt to assess psychological and other relevant constructs in a more efficient manner. Cognitive testing is a general term referring to the assessment of a wide range of 5. Most of these tests can be classified as either objective or projective instruments. Objective instruments present very specific questions or statements to which the person responds to using specific answers. Subjects are asked to respond freely to the testing stimuli such as telling stories about pictures, describing what they see in an inkblot, or saying the first thing that comes to their mind when hearing a word or sentence fragment. However, several of researchers have demonstrated that personality is not as stable as many people assume but instead partially depends on specific environmental and situational circumstances Many authors have questioned the reliability and validity of projective tests. Over the years numerous reviews have concluded that projective techniques have not demonstrated adequate reliability and validity to justify their use with patients. Many conclude that research failing to support the reliability and validity of these tests does not deter them from using the instruments if they believe that helpful clinical information can be obtained.

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Thishardlymeansthatacademicsare disposed by nature to medicine 93 2264 buy ondansetron 4mg free shipping be deceitful, but their preferred way of expressing themselvesmakesthiseasierwhentheychoosetodoso. A Northern Arizona University instructor was brought up short by the outcome when graduate students in a course on researchmethodsdebatedthistopic:"Resolved:Weshouldliewithresearch. Bailey thought that manyofhisfacultycolleagues,especiallythosewhobecomeadministrators, couldbenefitfromtheexampleofindigenouspeopleswhoatleastmakeno bones about their love of clever deception. Theextenttowhichseniorfacultytakecreditfortheworkofjunior colleagues has long been a scandal. In other cases ostensibly objective scholars have been found so beholden to businesses that underwrite their work,andsometimesactuallywritetheirwork,astoquestionitsintellectual integrity. Even worse are the many cases in which physical and social scientists alike have manipulated or falsified data to achieve desired results. Whentheyuncoverfabricatorsandplagiaristsintheirranks,membersofthe press investigate such transgressions, publicize the results, and fire the culprits. LargerTruths Late in his career, Edward Said, a Columbia University professor and onetime president of the Modern Language Association, was found to have embellishedhisownbackgroundtobringitmoreinlinewiththePalestinian strugglehechampioned. Saidclaimedtohavespenthisfirsttwelveyearsina JerusalemhomefromwhichheandhisfamilywereexpelledbyJewsinlate 1947, along with hundreds of thousands of other Palestinian refugees. One, Hanan Ashrawi, said that all Said had donewas"compressallhisuniquegiftsintheformofapersonalnarrativeas livingtestimonyoftheessenceofhisPalestinianhood. When ethnographer David Stoll discovered that Menchъ had fabricated key elements of her autobiography (as she later admitted), sympathetic members of the academy rushed to her defense. Their response was revealing more for what it said about academic attitudes toward truthfulnessthanabouttheGuatemalanactivistherself. True or false, such faculty members thought, her fanciful autobiography improved our understanding of oppression. DavidStollhimselfwasreviledas a defender of white privilege and an apologist for tyrants. A University of Pittsburgh professor said that the questions Stoll raised about "verifiability" werelessimportantthanhispositiononthequestionof"armedstruggle. To devout postmodernists, there is no such thing as literal truth,onlywhatsocietylabelstruth. To a postmodernist, such conflicting truths are little different than truths in conflict on political issues, and on whether whether Rigoberta Menchъ was honest. Those who point this out feel it is their duty to undermine, or "deconstruct," the very notion of objective truth as a prop for privilege. An anthology assigned to my son in college,provocativelytitledTheProductionofReality,gaveaforumtothose whotakethisposition. Astheauthorsofoneitsessaysargued,"Webelieve that the idea that there is absolute objective truth is not only mistaken but sociallyandpoliticallydangerous. Ifthissoundslikeacritiqueofleftactivism,thatisonly because such activism dominates the political atmosphere on so many campuses. As for those told by Ronald Reagan, well, so what if the Gipper did rail against virtually nonexistent "welfare queens"andmakeuppartsofhisautobiography? They agree that the concept of objective truth is too meager, too rigid, to accommodate the grandeur of their vision. George Orwell warned of this danger in his novel 1984, with its ironically named Ministry of Truth, and in his essay "Politics and the English Language," whicharguesthattooppressothersonemustfirstdegradewordssuchastruth onbehalfofsomegreatergood. The larger-truth gambit has been around for centuries in one form or another,andhasenoughappealthatitwillprobablybearoundforcenturiesto come. But ratifying this notion rather than redoubling our efforts to be fair and objective and to determine factual truth in matters of dispute opens the floodgatestoarbitrarypowercontests. As Daniel Farber and Suzanna Sherry ask rhetoricallyintheirbookBeyondAllReason,iffactsaresocialconstructsand truthisonlyrelative,whatdistinguishesthe"narrative"ofaHolocaustdenier fromthatofaHolocaustsurvivor? Inonecase, a book called Fragments recorded the experiences of a Jewish Holocaust survivor from Latvia named Binjamin Wilkomirski. In his book A Life in Pieces, Blake Eskin assembled compelling evidence that Fragments was largely apocryphal. One moderator of a Holocaust forum defended a fanciful accountofanothersuchposeuras"emotionallyhonestevenifitwasbasedon alie.


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