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Because Aedes aegypti reside in and around homes this is a pivotal step in disease prevention erectile dysfunction treatment massage generic zudena 100mg otc. The public should be kept informed in a timely manner, but steps must also be taken to avoid public panic and spread of misinformation. There should be a close partnership between media, public health, and vector control. In addition to a close partnership with media outlets, public health should also launch public education campaigns and have a strong social media presence. This should be initiated when cases identified in the county, even if they are travel-associated. Outreach and education should be scaled up if a locally acquired case is identified, and scaled down following two incubation periods. Public Education Public education should focus on three pivotal areas: Disease information o Who is at risk? Emphasize the true risk of disease, as well as the appropriate statistics o How is it transmitted? Sometimes symptoms of chikungunya can linger after the disease resolves, such as arthritis lasting for months following illness. Adults over 65 years of age, those with health conditions, and newborns, are at risk for more severe disease manifestations. Property and home protection against mosquito vectors P a g e 63 Arizona Arboviral Handbook for Chikungunya, Dengue, & Zika Viruses o How do I protect my home and family? Always use air conditioning instead of leaving doors or windows open, or make sure all doors and windows have intact screens. Educational materials can be found through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arizona Department of Health Services, and local health department websites. The goal of public messaging is to help the public make informed decisions, encourage positive behavior change, and maintain a dialog and culture of trust between stakeholders. As chikungunya and Zika viruses are new to the Americas, and dengue to Arizona, public knowledge is likely low. Social Media Messaging Social media messaging is defined as any messaging shared on a social media platform. It allows for information to be dispersed to a wider audience and then shared further by interested parties. Infographics and other educational materials can be shared on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn pages. During an increase in disease cases or vector populations, relevant materials should be shared more frequently so stakeholders have timely access to relevant and factual information. By sharing up-to-date incidence information and prevention messages, social media messaging can also be used to allay fears about the emerging disease. Messaging for Healthcare Providers Communication with healthcare providers is critical in all phases of preparedness and response for mosquito-borne disease threats. These messages should include the signs and symptoms of chikungunya, dengue, or Zika fever, diagnostic testing, reporting, and treatment recommendations. Messaging for Vector Control Communication with vector control agencies in all stages of the response is necessary to share information about vector presence, epidemiologic updates, and mosquito surveillance and control guidelines. Vector control agencies should be encouraged to conduct surveillance for Aedes aegypti, and develop plans for local response. Surveillance findings can be shared at the state level through the Arbonet database. This could include outreach through healthcare facilities to at-risk populations, as well as targeted messaging through social media. Communication Response Scenarios Scenario 1: Risk for imported cases Develop educational materials including fact sheets, frequently asked questions, press releases, and talking points for chikungunya, dengue, and Zika, as well as Aedes aegypti mosquitoes Inform key stakeholders about preparedness materials and guidelines o Healthcare facilities o Local public health partners o State health agencies and partners Begin dissemination of prevention-oriented educational materials through various formats o Printed materials o Websites o Social media messaging o Text messaging Develop a strong relationship with journalists and media partners. Media opportunities can be used to educate the public and avoid spread of misinformation Anticipate sensitive issues involved in the response and address them proactively. Some potential issues include: o Safety and risks associated with the increased pesticide application near homes o Large numbers of at-risk people inundating healthcare settings o Cost of control measures o Stigma issues associated with binational transmission P a g e 65 Arizona Arboviral Handbook for Chikungunya, Dengue, & Zika Viruses Scenario 2: Response to locally-acquired cases Issue local and statewide press releases to raise community awareness o Use a consistent spokesperson (preferably a local representative) as much as possible o Ensure information is released promptly o Use opportunity to promote source reduction and mosquito avoidance Increase efforts to disseminate educational materials to the public about mosquito control and disease symptoms Initiate consistent and frequent messaging via websites and social media platforms. Messaging should include disease information, differential diagnoses, and reporting requirements. If there is not a specific box for chikungunya, dengue, or Zika, please write in the testing request under "other. According to autopsy-based studies, the disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed in both adults and children.

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For example purchase erectile dysfunction pump generic 100 mg zudena otc, if a 20-year-old male died in a car accident in South Africa in 2010, he has 66 years of life lost, that is, the highest remaining life expectancy in 20-year-olds, as experienced by 20-year-old females in Japan. Researchers estimated disability weights using data collected from almost 14,000 respondents via household surveys in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Peru, Tanzania, and the United States. Disability weights measure the severity of different sequelae that result from disease and injury. The results were similar across all surveys despite cultural and socioeconomic differences. Respondents consistently placed health states such as mild hearing loss and long-term treated fractures at the low end of the severity scale, while they ranked acute schizophrenia and severe multiple sclerosis as very severe. Estimating years lived with disability Researchers estimated the prevalence of each sequela using different sources of data, including government reports of cases of infectious diseases, data from population-based disease registries for conditions such as cancers and chronic kidney diseases, antenatal clinic data, hospital discharge data, data from outpatient facilities, interview questions, and direct measurements of hearing, vision, and lungfunction testing from surveys and other sources. The study used data from sources such as satellite data on air pollution, breastfeeding data from population surveys, and blood and bone lead levels from medical examination surveys and epidemiological surveys. Researchers then collected data on the effects of risk factors on disease outcomes through systematic reviews of epidemiological studies. Communicable, newborn, maternal, and nutritional causes are shown in red, non-communicable diseases appear in blue, and injuries are shown in green. Dotted lines indicate causes that have fallen in rank during this period, while solid lines signal causes that have risen in rank. Causes associated with ill health and death in adults, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and low back pain, increased in rank between 1990 and 2010, while causes that primarily affect children, such as lower respiratory infections, diarrhea, preterm birth complications, and protein-energy malnutrition, decreased in rank. Since 2005, however, premature mortality and disability from these two causes have begun to decline. Rigorous scientific evidence that specific risk factors cause certain diseases and injuries. Scientific findings about the effects of different risk factors that are relevant for the general population. When subjects with zero exposure were impossible to find, as in the case of high blood pressure, for example, researchers established a level of minimum exposure that leads to the best health outcomes. Figure 5 illustrates the dramatic changes that have occurred in Asia and Latin America. The average age of death increased from 31 to 63 in tropical Latin America, which includes Brazil and Paraguay. People in the Middle East and North Africa lived 30 years longer on average in 2010 than they did in 1970. Sub-Saharan Africa has not made nearly as much progress as other developing regions, and people in this part of the world tend to die at much younger ages than in any other region. Eastern sub-Saharan Africa made the most progress out of the four sub-Saharan African regions, with people living on average 12 years longer in 2010 than they did in 1970. In western, southern, and central sub-Saharan Africa, the average age at death has risen by less than 10 years. Another way to understand changes in global demographic trends is to explore reductions in mortality rates by sex and age group. Figure 6 shows how death rates have declined in all age groups between 1970 and 2010. These changes have been most dramatic among males and females aged 0 to 9 years, whose death rates have dropped over 60% since 1970. Among age groups 15 and older, the decrease in female death rates since 1970 has been greater than the drop in male death rates. The gap in progress between men and women was largest between the ages of 15 to 54, most likely due to the persistence of higher mortality from injuries among men. Worldwide, the number of people dying from non-communicable diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and diabetes, has grown 30% since 1990. Population aging and, to a lesser extent, overall population growth also contributed to this increase in deaths from non-communicable diseases. At the same time, the death rate from non-communicable diseases decreased over this period from 645. Non-communicable causes are shown in blue; communicable, nutritional, maternal, and newborn causes in red; and injuries in green.

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In addition to webmd erectile dysfunction treatment discount zudena 100 mg the prevalence of large nuclear families, perhaps the other thing that tends to have a bearing on the family sizes in reality is the very strong bond between the nuclear family and the extended family. Cooper was doing double duty for us as both our eyes on the road and epidemiologic mole. Each of the 17,384 total shelters in these six camps had a unique identification that included the camp name, a block letter, and a shelter number. The design effect was equal to one because one person per shelter cluster was to be randomly selected for the survey. The sum total of all shelters (n = 17,384) served as the overall denominator for the population. At the first stage, we constructed a single sampling frame (x) among all six camps by using an alphabetical and numerical hierarchy of shelter addresses to create a linear list of all shelters. Thus, the first cluster on the list was shelter A1 from Totota camp and the 17,384th and final cluster was shelter D361 from Tumutu camp (Figure 19-13). We divided the total number of shelters by the sample size (17,384/260 = 67) to determine an interval-sampling instrument (r) to select shelter clusters systematically. A two-digit number x, between 01 and r, from a random number table was chosen as the first sampling point on the frame, with subsequent points provided by x + r, x + 2r, x + 3r, etc. Persons aged 6 months or more living in the shelter were assigned a number based on their height, from the shortest person in the shelter to the tallest. We invoked the newly minted "Jefferson Cooper" definition of a person considered to be a household member if he or she routinely slept overnight in the shelter during the vaccination campaign. Household members present during the survey supplied height estimates for absent persons who lived in the shelter. One person per shelter cluster was randomly chosen for the survey using a random number table. Approval for the survey was granted by local authorities in the Liberia Refugee Repatriation and Resettlement Commission. In addition, a signed and dated yellow fever vaccination card was requested from each person who was interviewed. Both were college educated, yet their career paths had been derailed by the civil war. During April 5 to 7, teams conducted face-to-face interviews with randomly selected survey participants. If an absent adult was selected, the survey team queried present household members to schedule a return appointment based on the availability of the selected adult. To minimize response bias of overreporting household size, respondents were clearly informed that the survey was not linked to a registration or food-distribution process. Among the 259 existing shelters, 22 were either unoccupied for 3 successive days during the survey (15 shelters) or were incomplete shelters that were not yet inhabited (seven shelters). The median age of respondents was 20 years (Table 19-2); of the 237 respondents, one half (n = 119) were aged 15 to 44 years. Gender distribution was similar among vaccinated versus unvaccinated respondents (P = 0. Among 22 unvaccinated respondents, 8 (38%) did not participate in the campaign because of prior yellow fever vaccination within the past 10 years; 5 (24%) stated that they were unaware of the campaign, and 5 (24%) stated that vaccination was "inconvenient. Including respondents reporting prior yellow fever vaccination within the past 10 years with the persons with self-reported recent vaccination, 223 respondents (94. Our study had at least four limitations that may have affected data interpretation. No significant difference between vaccinated females and males; relative risk = 1. Second, proof of vaccination was not obtained from 19 persons (9%) who claimed to have been immunized during the campaign, which may have introduced recall bias. This occurred most commonly when an absent person was selected and their vaccination card was unavailable either because the card was locked with their personal belongings inside the shelter or the absent person had taken the card with them outside the camp for documentation if traveling on main roads, registering for school, or seeking medical treatment.

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If including exposure to drugs for erectile dysfunction buy zudena 100 mg with amex other family physical and psychological violence, the percent rose to 11. Most of the exposure was eye witnessing, accounting for 65 to 86 percent of all exposure. In one investigation, even where one or both parents reported their children were not exposed, 21 percent of the children provided detailed descriptions of the domestic violence in their homes. Obviously, if the person who committed the homicide is unknown, the relationship to the victim is not determined. Even if the relationship is subsequently revealed, police infrequently update reports already sent to state or federal authorities. In 2009, it found 1,818 females were murdered by males in single victim/single offender incidents. This number did not include any cases from Florida and only limited cases from Illinois. For homicides where the victim relationship was known, 93 percent of the victims were killed by a male they knew. Of these 63 percent (989) of the victims were wives or intimate partners of their killers. Returning to the Washington State Coalition fatality reports, from 1997 thru June 2008, most of the fatalities in that state (272) involved a female intimate killed by a current or former husband or boyfriend. However, another 40 friends or family members of female intimates, 26 new partners of female intimates, 32 children of female intimates, two coworkers of female intimates, and four responding police officers were also killed by male abusers. Three male associates of male abusers also killed the female intimates of male abusers. Two females were killed by current or former female intimates and one new intimate female partner was killed by a female abusers. Three female abusers committed suicide after killing their partners, as did 139 male abusers. Two friends or family members of a male intimate as well as two new intimate partners of male intimates were killed by a female abuser. Friends or family members of female victims killed 14 male abusers, and law enforcement killed 17 male abusers. The Coalition reported that 22 of the males were killed by their female intimates in selfdefense or "probable" self-defense, while seven females killed their male intimates "not in self-defense. In that year, these states reported 573 intimate partner homicides, 386 of which were females. During that same year, these 43 this document is a research report submitted to the U. In other words, five times as many people died as a result of "intimate partner problem" suicides as intimate partner homicides. In cases of physical and sexual violence, they found the risk of suicidal thoughts was elevated four times compared to those not exposed to this violence. In cases of psychological violence, measured as insults, intimidation, threats, and humiliation, it was elevated five times. If battered women had good problem-solving skills, strong social supports, and operated from a 44 this document is a research report submitted to the U. According to the Violent Death Reporting System, women were most likely to use poison (40. The method of suicide attempt may account for the greater completion rate for male suicides over female suicides. They should be familiar with suicide prevention and interventions strategies and programs. Recent research reveals that despite the expenditure of billions of dollars in the United States on health care every year, the United States ranks only 27 out of the 33 of the most developed countries in life expectancy at birth. In addition to providing immediate safety and emergency housing, the assistance of Advocates and Service Providers may mitigate adverse impacts and facilitate victim resilience.

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Knowledge of the biology of vector species assists in the construction of mathematical models of the transmission of leishmaniasis erectile dysfunction quotes zudena 100mg low price. Predictive models would make it possible to anticipate epidemics and monitor control activities. The missing information includes the life expectancy of infected female sandflies; gonotrophic concordance versus discordance; the natural period of ovipositional cycles; the frequency of feeding on humans and on reservoir hosts or animals that play no part in transmission; and the time from ingestion of an infecting blood-meal to an infective bite. Mathematical models of the transmission of anthroponotic forms of leismaniasis would be simpler to construct than models of the transmission of zoonotic forms, which are complicated by the need to consider animal reservoir hosts. Trials of insecticide application in houses and animal sheds and of insecticidetreated materials have shown effects on sandfly density or human landing rates in Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, India, Nepal and the Sudan. There is evidence, however, that insecticide treatment of animal sheds can sometimes repel sandflies, resulting in higher biting rates of nearby unprotected humans; future evaluations should take this into account. Little information is available to relate sandfly density to infection rates; the only published data are derived from a mathematical model of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis. Clearly, further work is urgently required on the association between vector abundance and clinical disease. Use of a cleared barrier around human dwellings was assessed as a control measure for sylvatic zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence, sandfly density and reservoir 44 hosts all decreased substantially in the buffer zone; however, the only control was historical. Similar environmental control, involving clearing of vegetation around houses, has been used on a small scale in forests in Central and South America and in parts of western Asia, but few results have been reported in the literature. Ideally, evaluations of vector control should be based on the effect on the incidence of human disease. The incidence of clinical leishmaniasis is generally relatively low, however, so that the intervention and control populations must be chosen carefully, the sample must be large, and substantial resources should be available. Published intervention trials with leishmanial disease as the outcome are therefore few. Significant protection from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis by the use of insecticide-treated nets and other materials has been observed in Afghanistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Syrian Arab Republic. A retrospective analysis of mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets in the Sudan showed a significant protective effect. On the Indian subcontinent, indoor residual spraying in the 1950s and 1960s for malaria control was associated with a steep decline in the visceral leishmaniasis incidence; however, there is no published report of the effect. Epidemiological models to predict disease incidence and the effect of interventions would be useful for programme development and evaluation. As yet, there is insufficient regular collection of data to allow the use of models in the planning and evaluation of control programmes. Such systems integrate a wide range of data from different sources, including remote sensing and global positioning systems. Furthermore, geographical information systems can be flexibly adapted to the needs of endemic countries and geographical regions. When used properly, these systems can facilitate decision-making and support strategic planning for resource allocation and effective leishmaniasis control. Combined with good data from surveillance activities, these systems can be used routinely to generate base maps, delineate the distribution of vectors and reservoir hosts and prepare maps based on leishmaniasis prevalence or incidence. Comparing such maps with previous ones shows changes in the distribution of vectors, reservoir hosts and the disease. After proper analysis of environmental factors obtained through remote sensing and ground-based surveys, geographical information system models can be used to produce risk maps that can predict the probability of the presence of vectors 45 and reservoir hosts and the presence or incidence of leishmaniasis in locations not covered by ground-based surveys. In addition, geographical information systems include essential functionalities that can generate important information. For example, the distance calculator can be used to determine distances from forests, rivers, hospitals and health centres. Although not yet used to their full potential, geographical information systems have been used in a number of studies on leishmaniasis, including mapping of important species of sandflies such as P. Similarly, they were used to map the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan and the northwestern Bahia area of Brazil and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia and Tunisia.

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Entre eles erectile dysfunction 22 purchase 100mg zudena amex, destacam-se: densidade populacional, percentual de populaзгo por sexo, percentual de minifъndio e latifъndio, volume de extraзгo de madeira, бrea de plantaзгo de banana, ecossistema predominante, vetor predominante, entre outros. As capturas entomolуgicas deverгo ser realizadas nos locais provбveis de infecзгo do caso, desde que a investigaзгo epidemiolуgica indique que a transmissгo ocorra em ambiente domiciliar. As capturas deverгo ser realizadas, em pelo menos trкs pontos de coleta: · · · No intradomicнlio. Na margem da mata, se esta estiver localizada, no mбximo, atй 500 metros do domicнlio (local provбvel de infecзгo). Para a pesquisa entomolуgica, sгo recomendadas a utilizaзгo de armadilha luminosa, armadilha de Shannon com isca luminosa e capturas manuais. Estas deverгo ser expostas por 12 horas, a partir do crepъsculo vespertino, por no mнnimo uma noite (Figura 86). A coleta deve ser realizada a partir do crepъsculo vespertino atй аs 22 horas ou 23 horas (no caso de horбrio de verгo), preferencialmente no peridomicнlio (Figura 87). Caso a pesquisa entomolуgica em foco tenha resultado negativo, esta deverб ser repetida mensalmente, atй trкs meses. Do ponto de vista operacional, outras metodologias poderгo ser empregadas para a coleta de flebotomнneos como as armadilhas adesivas e as armadilhas com iscas animais ou com feromфnios, que nada mais sгo que uma otimizaзгo das metodologias anteriores. Recomenda-se, como tйcnica opcional, o emprego de armadilhas adesivas, que poderгo ser utilizadas nos mesmos pontos de coletas definidos anteriormente. As armadilhas devem ser expostas nos provбveis locais de repouso dos flebotomнneos durante pelo menos uma noite. Portanto, cada municнpio deverб ser classificado quanto а sua cobertura vegetal natural predominante e agrupado segundo caracterнsticas semelhantes, considerando a sua localizaзгo topogrбfica, independentemente da regiгo administrativa. Para o monitoramento, й recomendada a utilizaзгo de armadilha luminosa e armadilha de Shannon com isca luminosa, de modo a obter maior diversidade da fauna de flebotomнneos. Estas deverгo ser expostas por 12 horas, a partir do crepъsculo vespertino, durante no mнnimo trкs noites consecutivas para o monitoramento (Figura 86). A coleta deve ser realizada a partir do crepъsculo vespertino atй as 22 horas ou as 23 horas (no caso de horбrio de verгo), preferencialmente no peridomicнlio (Figura 87). O monitoramento deverб ser realizado mensalmente por no mнnimo dois anos e as coletas de flebotomнneos deverгo ser preferencialmente no mesmo perнodo de cada mкs. Do ponto de vista operacional, outras metodologias poderгo ser empregadas para a coleta de flebotomнneos, tais como: manual com capturador motorizado (Figura 88 A); capturas manuais com tubo de sucзгo tipo Castro (Figura 88 B); armadilhas adesivas e as armadilhas com iscas animais ou com feromфnios, que nada mais sгo que uma otimizaзгo das metodologias anteriores. As armadilhas devem ser expostas nos provбveis locais de repouso dos flebotomнneos, preferencialmente em abrigos de animais, por 12 horas a partir do crepъsculo vespertino por, no mнnimo, trкs noites consecutivas. Estas coletas deverгo ser realizadas por no mнnimo trкs noites, mensalmente, a partir do crepъsculo vespertino atй as 22 horas ou as 23 horas (no caso de horбrio de verгo). Ressalta-se que em бreas de transmissгo de Leishmania amazonensis й importante a utilizaзгo de armadilhas Disney. Estas deverгo ser expostas por 12 horas, a partir do crepъsculo vespertino, durante no mнnimo trкs noites consecutivas. Entretanto, й importante a realizaзгo de estudos de modo a ampliar o conhecimento a este respeito. Para isso, a Secretaria de Estado da Saъde deverб ser acionada e, com o Ministйrio da Saъde, avaliar a necessidade dessa investigaзгo. No entanto, devese estar atento a outras doenзas que causem ъlceras, tais como neoplasias, piodermites e micoses. Essas tйcnicas podem ser realizadas por meio de exames citolуgicos e histopatolуgicos ou por meio do isolamento em meio de cultura, permitindo posteriormente a identificaзгo da amostra isolada. No entanto, cabe destacar que estas tйcnicas sу deverгo ser realizadas em situaзхes especiais, conforme descrito no item 9. Evitar a exposiзгo nos horбrios de atividades do vetor (crepъsculo e noite), em бreas de ocorrкncia de L. Manejo ambiental por meio de limpeza de quintais e terrenos, a fim de alterar as condiзхes do meio que propiciem o estabelecimento de criadouros para formas imaturas do vetor. Poda de бrvores, de modo a aumentar a insolaзгo, a fim de diminuir o sombreamento do solo e evitar as condiзхes favorбveis (temperatura e umidade) ao desenvolvimento de larvas de flebotomнneos.

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In disease ecology erectile dysfunction journals proven zudena 100 mg, parasitism designates a non-symbiotic relationship in which one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, usually referred to as the host. Morse, "Emerging Viruses: Defining the Rules for Viral Traffic," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 34, no. Joshua Lederberg, "Infectious Disease as an Evolutionary Paradigm," Emerging Infectious Diseases 3, no. Mike Davis, the Monster at Our Door:The Global Threat of Avian Flu (NewYork:The New Press, 2005), 58­60. By inducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines, it is thought the H5N1 virus induced an extreme autoimmune reaction known as a "cytokine storm. Taubenberger is now chief of viral pathogenesis and evolution at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In all, five Americans were killed and seventeen were sickened when letters containing anthrax spores arrived at the offices of two congressmen and several news outlets. Keith Bradsher, "A Respiratory Illness: Economic Impact; From Tourism to High Finance, Mysterious Illness Spreads Havoc," NewYork Times (3 April 2003), accessed 2 October 2017. Webster, "Wet Markets-a Continuing Source of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Influenza? Neil Carey, "Ebola and Poro: Plague, Ancient Art, and the New Ritual of Death," Poro Studies Association, accessed 16 January 2017. James Fairhead, "Understanding social resistance to Ebola response in Guinea," Ebola Response Anthropology Platform, April 2015, accessed 16 January 2017: Joanne Liu, Global Health Risks Framework, Wellcome Trust workshop, 1­2 September 2015. Mark Honigsbaum, "Ebola: the Road to Zero," Mosaic, accessed 5 October 2017: mosaicscience. Manny Fernandez and Kevin Sack, "Ebola Patient Sent Home Despite Fever, Records Show," NewYork Times (10 October 2014), accessed 1 October 2016. However, he had showed no signs of fever or other symptoms of Ebola when he was screened on 19 September before boarding a flight from Monrovia to Brussels, from where he caught a connecting flight to Washington Dulles, followed by a second to Dallas-Fort Worth. Black Swan is the title of a 2010 best-selling book by the Lebanese-American essayist Nassim Nicholas Taleb, and refers to an event for which past experience has not prepared us and which, until it occurs, is widely considered to be an impossibility-the paradigm example being that before the discovery of Australia, people in the Old World were convinced that all swans were white because no one had seen a black one before. According to Taleb, a Black Swan has three key elements: "rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective (though not prospective) predictability. Table: Chronology of previous Ebola virus disease outbreaks," accessed 4 December 2015. Juliana Barbassa, "Inside the fight against the Zika virus," Vogue (5 May 2016), accessed 1 August 2017. Laura Clark Rohrer, "Enigma," Pitt (University of Pittsburgh), Summer 2017, 19­23. Liz Braga, "How a Small Team of Doctors Convinced the World to Stop Ignoring Zika," Newsweek (29 February 2016), accessed 1 August 2017. Pathogenicity and Physical Properties," Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46, no. Rachel Becker, "Missing Link: Animal Models to Study Whether Zika Causes Birth Defects," Nature Medicine 22, no. Margaret Chan, "Zika: we must be ready for the long haul," 1 February 2017, accessed 10 August 2017. Jonathan Watts, "Rio Olympics Committee Warns Athletes to Take Precautions against Zika Virus," the Guardian (2 February 2016), accessed 11 August 2017: Jonathan Ball, "No One is Safe from Zika: Confirmation that Mosquito-borne Virus Does Shrink Heads of Unborn Babies. Nadia Khomani, "Greg Rutherford Freezes Sperm over Olympics Zika Fears," the Guardian (7 June 2016), accessed 11 August 2017. Andrew Jacobs, "Conspiracy Theories About Zika Spread Through Brazil with the Virus," NewYork Times (16 February 2016), accessed 11 August 2017. Sarah Boseley, "Florida Issues Warning after Cluster of New Zika Cases in Miami Neighborhood," the Guardian (1 August 2016), accessed 11 August 2017: Ewen Callaway, "Rio fights Zika with Biggest Release Yet of Bacteria-infected Mosquitoes," Nature News 539, no. Kai Kupferschmidt, "Bats Really Do Harbor More Dangerous Viruses than Other Species," Science (21 June 2017), accessed 28 September 2017. Sarah Boseley, "Resolve Health Initiative Aims to Save 100m Lives Worldwide," the Guardian (12 September 2017), accessed 8 October 2017.

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